Posts Tagged ‘SOPA’

Aaron Swartz SOPA-PIPA Protest


The US Attorney’s office has quietly dismissed charges against Internet freedom activist Aaron Swartz, co-creator of RSS and co-founder of Reddit, the social-networking Website, who reportedly took his own life Friday.

A spokeswoman for US Attorney Carmen Ortiz told that paperwork was filed Monday dropping the charges, and that Ortiz does not want to discuss the case, being dismissed because of Swartz’s death.

Swartz, 26, who helped create RSS when he was a teen, and was a passionate advocate for making as much information as possible public on the Web, was indicted in 2011 by the federal government on charges of wire fraud and computer fraud. In an attempt to provide free access to JSTOR, a subscription service for science and literacy journals on MIT’s network, he downloaded nearly the entire library of 4.8 million articles and documents to make it publicly available, according to The New York Times.

“Aaron’s death is not simply a personal tragedy. It is the product of a criminal justice system rife with intimidation and prosecutorial overreach,” Swartz’s family and partner said in a statement over the weekend.

Decisions made by officials in the Massachusetts U.S. Attorney’s office and at MIT contributed to his death. The U.S. Attorney’s office pursued an exceptionally harsh array of charges, carrying potentially over 30 years in prison, to punish an alleged crime that had no victims. Meanwhile, unlike JSTOR, MIT refused to stand up for Aaron and its own community’s most cherished principles.

MIT said Sunday it is launching its own “analysis” of what happened in the case. “I want to express very clearly that I and all of us at MIT are extremely saddened by the death of this promising young man who touched the lives of so many,” said MIT President L. Rafael Reif in an email to those in the MIT community. “It pains me to think that MIT played any role in a series of events that have ended in tragedy.”

Meanwhile, a petition has been filed with the White House seeking to remove Ortiz from office “for overreach” in the Swartz case. While it is “too late to do anything for Aaron Swartz,” the petition says, the prosecutor who “used the powers granted to them by their office to hound him into a position where he was facing a ruinous trial, life in prison and the ignominy and shame of being a convicted felon” for “an alleged crime that the supposed victims did not wish to prosecute” should be ousted.

An Obama administration initiative called “We the People” says that staffers will respond and consider taking action on any issue that receives at least 25,000 online signatures within 30 days. (Sources: Suzanne Choney, Helen A.S. Popkin, NBC News)







It seems if there’s enough groundswell of outrage, DC may actually do the right thing 


Over the weekend, President Obama publicly declared his administration’s opposition to the controversial Internet censorship bill being introduced in Congress known as the Stop Online Piracy Act, better known as SOPA. (The opposition includes both versions of the bill, the House of Representatives’ SOPA and the Senate’s Protect IP Act aka PIPA, which is still technically alive.)

And now, after a continuous loss of support and facing severe and vocal opposition from the public, the House has shelved the bill, and it is what insiders like to call “Dead On Arrival.”

In reality, the bill has not been done away with completely. The correct term is “shelved indefinitely”.  And that means that the bill’s sponsors who refuse to see this thing die will revisit it at another time, make some changes to it, and bring it up at a later date.

Said House Oversight Chairman Darrell Issa (R-CA): “While I remain concerned about Senate action on the Protect IP Act, I am confident that flawed legislation will not be taken up by this House. Majority Leader [Eric] Cantor has assured me that we will continue to work to address outstanding concerns and work to build consensus prior to any anti-piracy legislation coming before the House for a vote.”

There were vocal opponents of both bills from every part of the political spectrum — Republicans, Democrats, liberals, conservatives, moderates, everyone. No one wanted this bill to happen, except for its sponsors. And a few corporations who may or may not have realized how far, exactly, this thing was meant to reach. Like putting people in prison for posting copyrighted material, for example, or wiping out entire web sites that featured what someone might consider copyrighted material.

But a major nail in the coffin came this weekend, when President Obama’s technology advisors expressed their severe concerns about the reach of the bill and the chilling effect it would have on free expression on the internet. Obama then promised to veto the bill in any form if it made it to his desk. One of SOPA’s main sponsors, Rep. Lamar Smith (R-TX), removed the provision that would have required ISPs to block any offending web sites, but the damage was done after the Administration’s statement.

But PIPA still lives on in the Senate, leaving us no time to rest on our laurels. Obama has vowed to veto it if it passes, which general consensus now considers unlikely. But this is exactly how they stuck us with the NDAA, with Obama vowing up until the very last moment before signing he was going to veto it, then renegging at the bitter end. On Christmas Eve.

These guys are treacherous, they’re criminals. If their lips are moving they’re lying. And they don’t need SOPA anyway if they can ramrod PIPA through. Look for a possible sleight of hand endrun here. These guys want this, now. And they’re not going to give in or give up easily. We need to jump on PIPA without any delay whatsoever, keep a close eye on all of this, and keep the pressure on.




“It is our attitude toward free thought and free expression that will determine our fate. There must be no limit on the range of temperate discussion, no limits on thought. No subject must be taboo. No censor must preside at our assemblies.”  — William O. Douglas


“When truth is no longer free, freedom is no longer real: the truths of the police are the truths of today.”  — Jacques Brevert


In the next few weeks, among the most talked-about legislation will be the Stop Online Piracy Act — commonly referred to as SOPA — which, if passed, would give the Justice Department the authority to block access to foreign websites deemed to be dedicated to copyright infringement.

Both SOPA and its Senate version, PIPA (officially known as the PROTECT-IP Act), have widespread bipartisan support among lawmakers. But the proposed law has become a pitched battle between entertainment companies — who believe SOPA will curb the illegal distribution of movies and music — and online media companies like Google and Facebook, who fear that the bills will be burdensome to implement and are tantamount to censorship.

When Rep. Lamar Smith announced the Stop Online Piracy Act in late October, he knew it was going to be controversial. But the Texas republican probably never anticipated the broad and fierce outcry from internet users that SOPA has provoked over the last few months. It was a show of public opposition to Internet-related legislation not seen since the 2003 political wrangling over implanting copy-protection technology in PCs, or perhaps even the blue ribbons appearing on websites in the mid-1990s in response to the Communications Decency Act.

Smith, a self-described former ranch manager whose congressional district encompasses the cropland and grazing land stretching between Austin and San Antonio, Texas, has become Hollywood’s favorite republican. The TV, movie, and music industries are the top donors to his 2012 campaign committee, and he’s been feted by music and movie industry lobbyists at dinners and concerts.

How does SOPA, and its Senate cousin known as the Protect IP Act, affect you? In the following segment we shall attempt to cover most of the frequently asked questions…


What’s the justification for SOPA and Protect IP?

Two words: rogue sites. That’s Hollywood’s term for websites that happen to be located in a nation more hospitable to copyright infringement than the United States is (in fact, the US is probably the least hospitable jurisdiction in the world for such an endeavor). Because the target is offshore, a lawsuit against the owners in a US court would be futile.

The US Chamber of Commerce, in a letter to the editor of The New York Times, put it this way: “Rogue websites that steal America’s innovative and creative products attract more than 53 billion visits a year and threaten more than 19 million American jobs.” The MPAA has a section of its website devoted to rogue Web sites. Jim Hood, the democratic attorney general of Mississippi, and co-chair of a National Association of Attorneys General committee on the topic, recently likened rogue websites to child pornography.

Who’s opposed to SOPA?

Much of the Internet industry and a large percentage of internet users.

On November 15, Google, Facebook, Twitter, Zynga, eBay, Mozilla, Yahoo, AOL, and LinkedIn wrote a letter to key members of the U.S. Senate and House of Representatives, saying SOPA poses “a serious risk to our industry’s continued track record of innovation and job creation, as well as to our nation’s cybersecurity.” Yahoo has reportedly quit the U.S. Chamber of Commerce over the organization’s enthusiastic support for SOPA.

The European Parliament adopted a resolution in mid-December stressing “the need to protect the integrity of the global Internet and freedom of communication by refraining from unilateral measures to revoke IP addresses or domain names.” Rep. Nancy Pelosi, the House Democratic leader, said in a message on Twitter last week that we “need to find a better solution than SOPA.”

A letter signed by Reps. Zoe Lofgren and Anna Eshoo, both California democrats, and Rep. Ron Paul, the republican presidential candidate from Texas, predicts that SOPA will invite “an explosion of innovation-killing lawsuits and litigation.” Law professors have also raised concerns. And yes, there is a protest song.

How would SOPA work?

It allows the U.S. attorney general to seek a court order against the targeted offshore Web site that would, in turn, be served on Internet providers in an effort to make the target virtually disappear. It’s kind of an Internet death penalty.

More specifically, section 102 of SOPA says that, after being served with a removal order:

A service provider shall take technically feasible and reasonable measures designed to prevent access by its subscribers located within the United States to the foreign infringing site (or portion thereof) that is subject to the order…Such actions shall be taken as expeditiously as possible, but in any case within five days after being served with a copy of the order, or within such time as the court may order.

How is SOPA different from the earlier Senate bill called the Protect IP Act?

Protect IP targeted only domain name system providers, financial companies, and ad networks–not companies that provide Internet connectivity.

Because SOPA is broader, even some companies who liked, or at least weren’t vocally opposed to, the Senate bill aren’t exactly delighted with the House version.

“Verizon continues to look at SOPA, and while it’s fair to say that we have concerns about the legislation, we are working with congressional staff to address those concerns,” a representative stated.

Tim McKone, AT&T’s executive vice president of federal relations, said that “we have been supportive of the general framework” of the Senate bill. But when it comes to SOPA, all AT&T would say is that it is “working constructively with Chairman Smith and others toward a similar end in the House.”

What are the security-related implications of SOPA?

One big one is how it interacts with the domain name system and a set of security improvements to it known as DNSSEC.

The idea of DNSSEC is to promote end-to-end encryption of domain names, meaning there’s no break in the chain between, say, and its customer. Requiring Internet providers to redirect allegedly piratical domain names to, say, the FBI’s servers isn’t compatible with DNSSEC.

Rep. Dan Lungren, who heads the Homeland Security subcommittee on cybersecurity, has said that an “unintended consequence” of SOPA would be to “undercut” the effort his panel has been making to promote DNSSEC.

The Sandia National Laboratories, part of the U.S. Department of Energy, has also raised concerns about SOPA, saying it is “unlikely to be effective” and will “negatively impact U.S. and global cybersecurity and Internet functionality.” And Stewart Baker, the former policy chief at the Department of Homeland Security who’s now in private practice, warned in an op-ed that SOPA “runs directly counter” to the House’s own cybersecurity efforts.

An analysis of Protect IP prepared by five Internet researchers this spring lists potential security problems. Among them: it’s “incompatible” with DNSSEC, innocent Web sites will be swept in as “collateral damage,” and the blacklist can be bypassed by using the numeric Internet address of a website.

What will SOPA require Internet providers to do?

A little-noticed portion of the proposed law goes further than Protect IP and could require Internet providers to monitor customers’ traffic and block Web sites suspected of copyright infringement.

“It would cover IP blocking,” says Markham Erickson, head of NetCoalition, whose members include, Google, eBay, and Yahoo. “I think it contemplates deep packet inspection” as well, he said.

The exact requirements will depend on what the removal order says. The Recording Industry Association of America says that SOPA could be used to force Internet providers to block by “Internet Protocol address” and deny “access to only the illegal part of the site.” It would come as no surprise if copyright holders suggested wording to the Justice Department, which would in turn seek a judge’s signature on the removal order.

Deep packet inspection, meaning forcing an Internet provider to intercept and analyze customers’ web traffic, is the only way to block access to specific URLs.

Smith’s revised version may limit the blocking requirement to DNS blocking. Its “safe harbor” language indicates that not resolving “the domain name of the foreign infringing site” may be sufficient, but some ambiguity remains.

Are there free speech implications to SOPA?

SOPA’s opponents say so–a New York Times op-ed called it the “Great Firewall of America–and the language of the bill itself is quite broad. Section 103 says that, to be blacklisted, a website must be “directed” at the U.S. and also that the owner “has promoted” acts that can infringe copyright.

Here’s how Section 101 of the original version of SOPA defines what a US-directed website is:

(A) the Internet site is used to provide goods or services to users located in the United States;

(B) there is evidence that the Internet site or portion thereof is intended to offer or provide such goods and services (or) access to such goods and services (or) delivery of such goods and services to users located in the United States;

(C) the internet site or portion thereof does not contain reasonable measures to prevent such goods and services from being obtained in or delivered to the United States; and

(D) any prices for goods and services are indicated or billed in the currency of the United States.

Some critics have charged that such language could blacklist the next YouTube, Wikipedia, or WikiLeaks. Especially in the case of WikiLeaks, which has posted internal documents not only from governments but also copyrighted documents from U.S. companies and has threatened to post more, it’s hard to see how it would not  qualify for blacklisting.

Laurence Tribe, a high-profile Harvard law professor and author of a treatise titled American Constitutional Law, has argued that SOPA is unconstitutional because, if enacted, “an entire website containing tens of thousands of pages could be targeted if only a single page were accused of infringement.”

What has the response to this language been?

Mozilla, which makes the Firefox web browser, responded by creating a page, saying: “Protect the Internet: Help us stop the Internet Blacklist Legislation.” It warns that “your favorite websites both inside and outside the US could be blocked based on an infringement claim.”

Websites including Wikimedia (as in Wikipedia) charged that SOPA is an “Internet blacklist bill” that “would allow corporations, organizations, or the government to order an Internet service provider to block an entire website simply due to an allegation that the site posted infringing content.” Tumblr “censored” its users’ content streams, and reported that its users averaged 3.6 calls per second to Congress through the company’s website — nearly 90,000 total.

With a bit of HTML from, a website supported by the Free Software Foundation, the Electronic Frontier Foundation, and Public Knowledge, hundreds of websites “censored” themselves to protest SOPA. Even Lofgren, from Silicon Valley, has joined the fight-censorship protest.

For their part, the Motion Picture Association of America (MPAA) has been highlighting an analysis it commissioned from First Amendment lawyer Floyd Abrams, a former MPAA attorney, who concluded SOPA is perfectly constitutional.

Who supports SOPA?

The three organizations that have probably been the most vocal are the MPAA, the Recording Industry Association of America, and the US Chamber of Commerce. A Politico chart shows that Hollywood has outspent Silicon Valley by about tenfold on lobbyists in the last two years.

Supporters publicized letters from the National Fraternal Order of Police and the International Association of Fire Fighters lending their weight to the web-blocking idea. And the AFL-CIO sent a representative to testify in support of SOPA at the House hearings in mid-December.

Over 400 businesses and organizations have sent a letter supporting SOPA.

And in the U.S. Congress?

Support for Protect IP is remarkably broad, and for SOPA a little less so. An analysis by the RIAA says that of some 1,900 bills that have been introduced in the Senate, only 18 other bills enjoy the same number of bipartisan cosponsors as Protect IP does.

That puts it in the top 1 percent of most-popular bills, at least for this measurement of congressional enthusiasm. Of Protect IP’s sponsors in the Senate, over 60% are Democrats.

There are 40 Senate co-sponsors of Protect IP. SOPA has only 31 co-sponsors, but it hasn’t been around as long. Rep. Darrell Issa, a California republican, has introduced the so-called OPEN Act that would cut off the flow of funds to alleged pirate websites without requiring them to be blocked.

Would SOPA block Tor?

Perhaps. In an echo of the 1998 Digital Millennium Copyright Act’s anticircumvention section, SOPA targets anyone who “knowingly and willfully provides or offers to provide a product or service designed or marketed by such entity…for the circumvention or bypassing” of a Justice Department-erected blockade.

Legal scholars say Tor could qualify as a “circumvention” tool, which would allow it to be targeted.

What happens next?

In terms of Protect IP, the Senate Judiciary committee has approved it and it’s waiting for a floor vote that has been scheduled for January 24. One hurdle: Sen. Ron Wyden, an Oregon democrat, has placed a hold on the bill.

During a two-day debate in the House Judiciary committee in mid-December, it became clear that SOPA supporters have a commanding majority on the committee. They’re expected to approve it.

Where it goes from there is an open question that depends on where the House Republican leadership stands. Because the House’s floor schedule is under the control of the majority party, the decision will largely lie in the hands of House Speaker John Boehner and his lieutenants.

Another possibility is that there could be further House hearings on the security-related implications of SOPA, a move that would delay a final vote.


Obtain or read the full certified, Verisigned, 78-page bill now before the House of Representatives, hot off the GPO press, right here at The Dirty Lowdown.

Click on the link below and the whole 78-page bill will pop up. You can just read what you want or download a copy for your own use. A PDF reader such as Adobe Reader is required.  The download is 244 KB.  — John


 H.R.3261 Stop Online Piracy Act



Bill Summary & Status – 112th Congress (2011-2012)


Latest Title: Stop Online Piracy Act

Sponsor: Rep Smith, Lamar [TX-21] (introduced 10/26/2011) Cosponsors (31)

Related Bills: S.968, S.1228

Latest Major Action: 12/16/2011 House committee/subcommittee actions.

Status: Committee Consideration and Mark-up Session Held.


Summary as of: 10/26/2011–Introduced

Stop Online Piracy Act – Authorizes the Attorney General (AG) to seek a court order against a U.S.-directed foreign Internet site committing or facilitating online piracy to require the owner, operator, or domain name registrant, or the site or domain name itself if such persons are unable to be found, to cease and desist further activities constituting specified intellectual property offenses under the federal criminal code including criminal copyright infringement, unauthorized fixation and trafficking of sound recordings or videos of live musical performances, the recording of exhibited motion pictures, or trafficking in counterfeit labels, goods, or services.

Sets forth an additional two-step process that allows an intellectual property right holder harmed by a U.S.-directed site dedicated to infringement, or a site promoted or used for infringement under certain circumstances, to first provide a written notification identifying the site to related payment network providers and Internet advertising services requiring such entities to forward the notification and suspend their services to such an identified site unless the site’s owner, operator, or domain name registrant, upon receiving the forwarded notification, provides a counter notification explaining that it is not dedicated to engaging in specified violations. Authorizes the right holder to then commence an action for limited injunctive relief against the owner, operator, or domain name registrant, or against the site or domain name itself if such persons are unable to be found, if: (1) such a counter notification is provided (and, if it is a foreign site, includes consent to U.S. jurisdiction to adjudicate whether the site is dedicated to such violations), or (2) a payment network provider or Internet advertising service fails to suspend its services in the absence of such a counter notification.

Requires online service providers, Internet search engines, payment network providers, and Internet advertising services, upon receiving a copy of a court order relating to an AG action, to carry out certain preventative measures including withholding services from an infringing site or preventing users located in the United States from accessing the infringing site. Requires payment network providers and Internet advertising services, upon receiving a copy of such an order relating to a right holder’s action, to carry out similar preventative measures.

Provides immunity from liability for service providers, payment network providers, Internet advertising services, advertisers, Internet search engines, domain name registries, or domain name registrars that take actions required by this Act or otherwise voluntarily block access to or end financial affiliation with such sites.

Permits such entities to stop or refuse services to certain sites that endanger public health by distributing prescription medication that is adulterated, misbranded, or without a valid prescription.

Expands the offense of criminal copyright infringement to include public performances of: (1) copyrighted work by digital transmission, and (2) work intended for commercial dissemination by making it available on a computer network. Expands the criminal offenses of trafficking in inherently dangerous goods or services to include: (1) counterfeit drugs; and (2) goods or services falsely identified as meeting military standards or intended for use in a national security, law enforcement, or critical infrastructure application.

Increases the penalties for: (1) specified trade secret offenses intended to benefit a foreign government, instrumentality, or agent; and (2) various other intellectual property offenses as amended by this Act.

Directs the U.S. Sentencing Commission to review, and if appropriate, amend related Federal Sentencing Guidelines.

Requires the Secretary of State and Secretary of Commerce to appoint at least one intellectual property attache to be assigned to the U.S. embassy or diplomatic mission in a country in each geographic region covered by a Department of State regional bureau.





Referred to the House Committee on the Judiciary.

Referred to the Subcommittee on Intellectual Property, Competition and the Internet.
Committee Hearings Held.
Subcommittee on Intellectual Property, Competition and the Internet Discharged.
Committee Consideration and Mark-up Session Held.
Committee Consideration and Mark-up Session Held.


    Stop Online Piracy Act 
    To promote prosperity, creativity, entrepreneurship, and innovation by combating the theft of U.S. property, and for other purposes.




Rep Amodei, Mark E. [NV-2] – 11/3/2011
Rep Baca, Joe [CA-43] – 12/7/2011
Rep Barrow, John [GA-12] – 11/14/2011
Rep Bass, Karen [CA-33] – 11/3/2011
Rep Berman, Howard L. [CA-28] – 10/26/2011
Rep Blackburn, Marsha [TN-7] – 10/26/2011
Rep Bono Mack, Mary [CA-45] – 10/26/2011
Rep Carter, John R. [TX-31] – 11/3/2011
Rep Chabot, Steve [OH-1] – 10/26/2011
Rep Chu, Judy [CA-32] – 11/30/2011
Rep Conyers, John, Jr. [MI-14] – 10/26/2011
Rep Cooper, Jim [TN-5] – 12/12/2011
Rep Deutch, Theodore E. [FL-19] – 10/26/2011
Rep Gallegly, Elton [CA-24] – 10/26/2011
Rep Goodlatte, Bob [VA-6] – 10/26/2011
Rep Griffin, Tim [AR-2] – 10/26/2011
Rep Holden, Tim [PA-17] – 11/30/2011
Rep King, Peter T. [NY-3] – 11/3/2011
Rep Larson, John B. [CT-1] – 11/30/2011
Rep Lujan, Ben Ray [NM-3] – 11/14/2011
Rep Marino, Tom [PA-10] – 11/3/2011
Rep Nunnelee, Alan [MS-1] – 11/3/2011
Rep Owens, William L. [NY-23] – 11/14/2011
Rep Quayle, Benjamin [AZ-3] – 12/13/2011
Rep Ross, Dennis [FL-12] – 10/26/2011
Rep Scalise, Steve [LA-1] – 11/14/2011
Rep Schiff, Adam B. [CA-29] – 10/26/2011
Rep Sherman, Brad [CA-27] – 12/7/2011
Rep Terry, Lee [NE-2] – 10/26/2011
Rep Wasserman Schultz, Debbie [FL-20] – 11/3/2011
Rep Watt, Melvin L. [NC-12] – 11/3/2011


Contributions by Legislator

Name Party State $ From Interest Groups That Support $ From Interest Groups That Oppose
Gary Ackerman D NY-5 $151,296 $0
Sandy Adams R FL-24 $171,676 $16,650
Robert Aderholt R AL-4 $75,073 $31,444
W. Todd Akin R MO-2 $146,100 $29,750
Rodney Alexander R LA-5 $180,212 $4,700
Jason Altmire D PA-4 $307,161 $42,150
Justin Amash R MI-3 $153,625 $3,950
Mark Amodei R NV-2 $12,653 $5,000
Rob Andrews D NJ-1 $223,146 $24,150
Steve Austria R OH-7 $106,410 $29,574
Joe Baca D CA-43 $97,422 $25,600
Michele Bachmann R MN-6 $713,790 $41,595
Spencer Bachus R AL-6 $219,526 $20,900
Tammy Baldwin D WI-2 $213,760 $36,000
Lou Barletta R PA-11 $163,270 $17,200
John Barrow D GA-12 $582,362 $28,250
Roscoe Bartlett R MD-6 $45,450 $8,045
Joe Barton R TX-6 $282,350 $11,850
Charlie Bass R NH-2 $227,303 $40,900
Karen Bass D CA-33 $196,438 $6,700
Xavier Becerra D CA-31 $269,999 $21,600
Dan Benishek R MI-1 $119,659 $18,786
Rick Berg R ND $192,057 $32,550
Rochelle “Shelley” Berkley D NV-1 $478,465 $48,290
Howard Berman D CA-28 $630,026 $36,303
Judy Biggert R IL-13 $240,939 $29,000
Brian Bilbray R CA-50 $160,442 $15,050
Gus Bilirakis R FL-9 $79,000 $3,900
Rob Bishop R UT-1 $13,350 $5,500
Sanford Bishop D GA-2 $237,201 $42,550
Tim Bishop D NY-1 $378,168 $72,950
Diane Black R TN-6 $186,931 $16,850
Marsha Blackburn R TN-7 $362,967 $26,250
Earl Blumenauer D OR-3 $188,184 $3,950
John A. Boehner R OH-8 $1,460,310 $118,190
Jo Bonner R AL-1 $118,150 $13,050
Mary Bono Mack R CA-45 $419,266 $11,426
Madeleine Bordallo D GU $7,500 $1,240
Dan Boren D OK-2 $181,849 $41,500
Leonard Boswell D IA-3 $209,050 $34,275
Charles Boustany R LA-7 $184,500 $29,813
Kevin Brady R TX-8 $138,049 $22,250
Bob Brady D PA-1 $148,200 $8,400
Bruce Braley D IA-1 $907,260 $27,750
Mo Brooks R AL-5 $127,973 $13,880
Paul Broun R GA-10 $159,642 $850
Corrine Brown D FL-3 $118,363 $19,250
Vern Buchanan R FL-13 $187,200 $58,000
Larry Bucshon R IN-8 $99,446 $8,400
Ann Marie Buerkle R NY-25 $110,765 $8,278
Michael Burgess R TX-26 $136,881 $5,750
Dan Burton R IN-5 $96,819 $3,600
George “G.K.” Butterfield D NC-1 $194,375 $1,250
Ken Calvert R CA-44 $179,070 $10,400
Dave Camp R MI-4 $662,998 $44,638
John Campbell R CA-48 $156,450 $11,300
Francisco Canseco R TX-23 $157,248 $3,000
Eric Cantor R VA-7 $949,156 $91,750
Shelley Capito R WV-2 $229,150 $10,950
Lois Capps D CA-23 $181,727 $42,150
Mike Capuano D MA-8 $493,850 $99,050
Dennis Cardoza D CA-18 $149,526 $28,800
John “Russ” Carnahan D MO-3 $561,516 $37,828
John Carney D DE $514,318 $54,000
André Carson D IN-7 $165,381 $9,000
John Carter R TX-31 $102,661 $29,700
Bill Cassidy R LA-6 $127,605 $1,750
Kathy Castor D FL-11 $231,385 $15,500
Steve Chabot R OH-1 $281,423 $23,150
Jason Chaffetz R UT-3 $111,820 $5,807
Albert “Ben” Chandler D KY-6 $376,750 $50,450
Donna Christian-Christensen D VI $67,700 $3,100
Judy Chu D CA-32 $182,129 $13,800
David Cicilline D RI-1 $396,030 $47,326
Hansen Clarke D MI-13 $134,730 $34,900
Yvette Clarke D NY-11 $113,200 $26,700
William Lacy Clay D MO-1 $101,550 $7,150
Emanuel Cleaver D MO-5 $186,800 $17,400
Jim Clyburn D SC-6 $613,656 $48,296
John Howard Coble R NC-6 $92,749 $4,500
Mike Coffman R CO-6 $98,520 $8,750
Steve Cohen D TN-9 $144,781 $19,750
Tom Cole R OK-4 $83,981 $12,400
K. “Mike” Conaway R TX-11 $74,614 $0
Gerry Connolly D VA-11 $277,441 $135,177
John Conyers D MI-14 $318,268 $12,639
Jim Cooper D TN-5 $233,825 $60,750
Jim Costa D CA-20 $235,212 $49,600
Jerry Costello D IL-12 $202,850 $6,000
Joe Courtney D CT-2 $338,125 $49,257
Chip Cravaack R MN-8 $90,748 $5,206
Rick Crawford R AR-1 $96,610 $13,175
Ander Crenshaw R FL-4 $60,150 $5,250
Mark Critz D PA-12 $348,450 $78,400
Joe Crowley D NY-7 $354,251 $36,650
Henry Cuellar D TX-28 $135,594 $14,500
John Culberson R TX-7 $70,175 $10,450
Elijah Cummings D MD-7 $99,700 $5,500
Danny Davis D IL-7 $94,000 $3,500
Geoff Davis R KY-4 $223,389 $10,650
Susan Davis D CA-53 $58,300 $31,200
Peter DeFazio D OR-4 $92,101 $21,140
Diana DeGette D CO-1 $234,784 $28,600
Rosa DeLauro D CT-3 $203,600 $24,200
Jeff Denham R CA-19 $145,714 $9,800
Charlie Dent R PA-15 $378,275 $21,300
Scott DesJarlais R TN-4 $128,973 $7,800
Ted Deutch D FL-19 $396,549 $47,700
Mario Diaz-Balart R FL-21 $114,236 $2,500
Norm Dicks D WA-6 $196,500 $43,150
John Dingell D MI-15 $570,348 $13,800
Lloyd Doggett D TX-25 $339,764 $49,800
Bob Dold R IL-10 $464,925 $95,200
Joe Donnelly D IN-2 $419,133 $32,550
Mike Doyle D PA-14 $166,244 $3,000
David Dreier R CA-26 $181,600 $14,900
Sean Duffy R WI-7 $200,838 $15,900
Jeff Duncan R SC-3 $206,300 $11,450
John “Jimmy” Duncan R TN-2 $63,491 $1,000
Donna Edwards D MD-4 $76,269 $45,550
Keith Ellison D MN-5 $152,659 $9,550
Renee Ellmers R NC-2 $88,684 $3,500
Jo Ann Emerson R MO-8 $316,100 $10,500
Eliot Engel D NY-17 $154,900 $14,200
Anna Eshoo D CA-14 $236,350 $108,589
Eni Faleomavaega D AS $7,400 $500
Blake Farenthold R TX-27 $35,600 $1,750
Sam Farr D CA-17 $86,028 $1,700
Chaka Fattah D PA-2 $135,600 $3,750
Bob Filner D CA-51 $111,300 $2,750
Stephen Fincher R TN-8 $284,166 $5,250
Mike Fitzpatrick R PA-8 $369,545 $19,850
Jeff Flake R AZ-6 $514,223 $36,000
Chuck Fleischmann R TN-3 $127,432 $3,400
John Fleming R LA-4 $88,600 $750
Bill Flores R TX-17 $177,734 $17,900
J. “Randy” Forbes R VA-4 $89,001 $4,450
Jeff Fortenberry R NE-1 $62,912 $750
Virginia Foxx R NC-5 $66,960 $7,500
Barney Frank D MA-4 $338,444 $105,360
Trent Franks R AZ-2 $122,775 $15,600
Rodney Frelinghuysen R NJ-11 $184,150 $8,100
Marcia Fudge D OH-11 $141,346 $250
Elton Gallegly R CA-24 $94,205 $4,400
John Garamendi D CA-10 $385,423 $45,459
Cory Gardner R CO-4 $292,942 $16,610
Ernest Scott Garrett R NJ-5 $231,548 $18,400
Jim Gerlach R PA-6 $416,154 $47,950
Bob Gibbs R OH-18 $116,173 $3,833
Chris Gibson R NY-20 $174,352 $37,365
Gabrielle Giffords D AZ-8 $300,970 $131,539
John “Phil” Gingrey R GA-11 $209,583 $3,500
Louie Gohmert R TX-1 $76,667 $5,500
Charlie Gonzalez D TX-20 $198,700 $21,250
Bob Goodlatte R VA-6 $187,600 $38,769
Paul Gosar R AZ-1 $96,352 $15,133
Trey Gowdy R SC-4 $181,377 $500
Kay Granger R TX-12 $165,207 $20,450
Sam Graves R MO-6 $128,625 $14,350
John “Tom” Graves R GA-9 $293,493 $250
Al Green D TX-9 $79,800 $0
Raymond “Gene” Green D TX-29 $245,455 $9,300
Tim Griffin R AR-2 $250,490 $30,518
H. Griffith R VA-9 $202,265 $3,250
Raul Grijalva D AZ-7 $137,071 $44,241
Michael Grimm R NY-13 $238,727 $18,225
Frank Guinta R NH-1 $115,498 $20,350
Steven Brett Guthrie R KY-2 $156,872 $6,500
Luis Gutiérrez D IL-4 $88,790 $6,800
Janice Hahn D CA-36 $163,279 $31,450
Ralph Hall R TX-4 $79,550 $3,480
Colleen Hanabusa D HI-1 $348,967 $80,850
Richard Hanna R NY-24 $116,704 $18,125
Gregg Harper R MS-3 $111,500 $6,250
Andy Harris R MD-1 $168,201 $24,500
Vicky Hartzler R MO-4 $200,500 $18,050
Alcee Hastings D FL-23 $124,650 $24,650
Richard “Doc” Hastings R WA-4 $68,900 $10,500
Nan Hayworth R NY-19 $281,301 $45,128
Joe Heck R NV-3 $138,286 $27,000
Martin Heinrich D NM-1 $431,354 $141,416
Jeb Hensarling R TX-5 $216,156 $21,701
Wally Herger R CA-2 $109,800 $8,150
Jaime Herrera Beutler R WA-3 $141,043 $30,633
Brian Higgins D NY-27 $135,025 $1,500
Jim Himes D CT-4 $528,239 $98,200
Maurice Hinchey D NY-22 $107,658 $38,814
Rubén Hinojosa D TX-15 $80,450 $3,500
Mazie Hirono D HI-2 $196,000 $16,300
Kathy Hochul D NY-26 $239,065 $24,750
Thomas “Tim” Holden D PA-17 $175,685 $38,000
Rush Holt D NJ-12 $381,007 $143,949
Mike Honda D CA-15 $128,412 $33,307
Steny H. Hoyer D MD-5 $841,150 $62,300
Tim Huelskamp R KS-1 $142,680 $7,600
Bill Huizenga R MI-2 $63,900 $5,500
Randy Hultgren R IL-14 $186,329 $21,050
Duncan Hunter R CA-52 $78,215 $6,500
Robert Hurt R VA-5 $372,840 $34,253
Jay Inslee D WA-1 $301,550 $93,789
Steve Israel D NY-2 $505,101 $51,500
Darrell Issa R CA-49 $313,014 $35,000
Jesse Jackson D IL-2 $94,750 $17,700
Sheila Jackson Lee D TX-18 $137,685 $2,750
Lynn Jenkins R KS-2 $185,050 $7,350
Bill Johnson R OH-6 $106,092 $2,500
Eddie Bernice Johnson D TX-30 $81,050 $3,300
Henry “Hank” Johnson D GA-4 $138,171 $1,250
Sam Johnson R TX-3 $122,535 $22,450
Tim Johnson R IL-15 $57,900 $0
Walter Jones R NC-3 $85,675 $5,650
Jim Jordan R OH-4 $155,100 $6,500
Marcy Kaptur D OH-9 $124,724 $7,500
William Keating D MA-10 $448,681 $12,700
Mike Kelly R PA-3 $101,654 $28,950
Dale Kildee D MI-5 $108,425 $8,900
Ron Kind D WI-3 $356,115 $50,800
Pete King R NY-3 $224,013 $34,050
Steve King R IA-5 $147,550 $250
Jack Kingston R GA-1 $110,391 $10,400
Adam Kinzinger R IL-11 $235,386 $11,150
Larry Kissell D NC-8 $112,926 $6,000
John Kline R MN-2 $279,715 $31,700
Dennis Kucinich D OH-10 $76,250 $4,665
Steve LaTourette R OH-14 $221,555 $6,000
Raúl Labrador R ID-1 $94,632 $11,750
Doug Lamborn R CO-5 $28,589 $11,000
Leonard Lance R NJ-7 $276,150 $13,950
Jeff Landry R LA-3 $119,950 $18,500
Jim Langevin D RI-2 $165,868 $24,895
James Lankford R OK-5 $52,660 $15,800
Rick Larsen D WA-2 $269,270 $98,600
John Larson D CT-1 $362,645 $28,900
Tom Latham R IA-4 $294,550 $11,150
Bob Latta R OH-5 $90,300 $3,250
Barbara Lee D CA-9 $164,712 $25,589
Sandy Levin D MI-12 $422,248 $28,400
Charles “Jerry” Lewis R CA-41 $109,700 $4,000
John Lewis D GA-5 $173,800 $13,900
Dan Lipinski D IL-3 $106,225 $20,650
Frank LoBiondo R NJ-2 $209,765 $7,000
Dave Loebsack D IA-2 $194,731 $18,750
Zoe Lofgren D CA-16 $195,730 $57,189
Billy Long R MO-7 $84,697 $7,950
Nita Lowey D NY-18 $285,410 $52,950
Frank Lucas R OK-3 $74,100 $6,250
Blaine Luetkemeyer R MO-9 $139,850 $5,000
Ben Ray Luján D NM-3 $169,730 $38,318
Cynthia Lummis R WY $69,360 $1,250
Dan Lungren R CA-3 $316,435 $27,400
Stephen Lynch D MA-9 $126,950 $400
Connie Mack R FL-14 $66,755 $11,350
Carolyn Maloney D NY-14 $415,185 $49,609
Don Manzullo R IL-16 $113,249 $2,725
Kenny Marchant R TX-24 $76,300 $7,500
Thomas Marino R PA-10 $118,785 $6,500
Ed Markey D MA-7 $271,500 $28,084
Jim Matheson D UT-2 $334,900 $29,500
Doris Matsui D CA-5 $163,680 $6,000
Carolyn McCarthy D NY-4 $179,500 $40,275
Kevin McCarthy R CA-22 $434,750 $25,575
Michael McCaul R TX-10 $151,883 $49,194
Tom McClintock R CA-4 $107,012 $6,500
Betty McCollum D MN-4 $106,298 $31,150
Thaddeus McCotter R MI-11 $183,559 $5,500
Jim McDermott D WA-7 $80,800 $10,270
Jim McGovern D MA-3 $216,598 $40,200
Patrick McHenry R NC-10 $156,150 $7,150
Douglas “Mike” McIntyre D NC-7 $188,475 $30,600
Howard P. “Buck” McKeon R CA-25 $97,750 $26,292
David McKinley R WV-1 $203,010 $8,800
Cathy McMorris Rodgers R WA-5 $169,404 $12,088
Jerry McNerney D CA-11 $406,737 $171,473
Patrick Meehan R PA-7 $797,538 $77,950
Gregory Meeks D NY-6 $168,852 $24,545
John Mica R FL-7 $104,620 $4,200
Mike Michaud D ME-2 $141,905 $26,750
Candice Miller R MI-10 $112,800 $0
Gary Miller R CA-42 $48,250 $0
George Miller D CA-7 $166,506 $38,850
Jeff Miller R FL-1 $24,450 $29,750
R. “Brad” Miller D NC-13 $188,650 $4,200
Gwen Moore D WI-4 $106,924 $9,900
Jim Moran D VA-8 $137,703 $110,100
Mick Mulvaney R SC-5 $196,696 $9,000
Chris Murphy D CT-5 $726,953 $149,500
Tim Murphy R PA-18 $348,000 $10,550
Sue Myrick R NC-9 $165,920 $6,400
Jerry Nadler D NY-8 $293,079 $17,575
Grace Napolitano D CA-38 $44,600 $500
Richard Neal D MA-2 $281,728 $24,716
Robert “Randy” Neugebauer R TX-19 $99,300 $4,250
Kristi Noem R SD $261,754 $29,531
Eleanor Holmes Norton D DC $84,350 $1,050
Richard Nugent R FL-5 $45,546 $500
Devin Nunes R CA-21 $150,785 $18,400
Alan Nunnelee R MS-1 $163,055 $17,650
Pete Olson R TX-22 $119,022 $11,725
John Olver D MA-1 $162,738 $14,100
Bill Owens D NY-23 $419,508 $123,600
Steven Palazzo R MS-4 $98,498 $12,300
Frank Pallone D NJ-6 $347,900 $20,900
Bill Pascrell D NJ-8 $313,091 $9,350
Ed Pastor D AZ-4 $120,400 $5,400
Ron Paul R TX-14 $15,130 $7,050
Erik Paulsen R MN-3 $376,610 $59,250
Donald Payne D NJ-10 $108,880 $9,800
Steve Pearce R NM-2 $189,830 $10,400
Nancy Pelosi D CA-8 $488,150 $95,400
Mike Pence R IN-6 $375,971 $22,500
Ed Perlmutter D CO-7 $472,825 $85,450
Gary Peters D MI-9 $597,517 $93,685
Collin Peterson D MN-7 $106,289 $21,500
Tom Petri R WI-6 $86,633 $2,000
Pedro Pierluisi D PR $66,750 $14,750
Rochelle “Chellie” Pingree D ME-1 $127,900 $71,600
Joe Pitts R PA-16 $197,245 $7,950
Todd Platts R PA-19 $11,900 $0
Lloyd “Ted” Poe R TX-2 $133,171 $11,350
Jared Polis D CO-2 $78,099 $46,870
Mike Pompeo R KS-4 $127,107 $18,404
Bill Posey R FL-15 $74,000 $17,850
David Price D NC-4 $171,000 $23,100
Tom Price R GA-6 $197,081 $20,926
Ben Quayle R AZ-3 $353,033 $59,300
Mike Quigley D IL-5 $142,827 $16,750
Nick Rahall D WV-3 $163,400 $16,200
Charlie Rangel D NY-15 $351,875 $41,083
Tom Reed R NY-29 $186,225 $26,178
Denny Rehberg R MT $176,883 $34,770
Dave Reichert R WA-8 $292,076 $51,276
Jim Renacci R OH-16 $247,384 $22,189
Silvestre Reyes D TX-16 $131,325 $21,670
Reid Ribble R WI-8 $82,005 $15,150
Laura Richardson D CA-37 $108,550 $10,500
Cedric Richmond D LA-2 $346,850 $34,150
E. Rigell R VA-2 $182,917 $50,612
David Rivera R FL-25 $225,184 $24,050
Martha Roby R AL-2 $110,116 $12,000
David “Phil” Roe R TN-1 $29,845 $650
Harold “Hal” Rogers R KY-5 $131,350 $28,450
Mike D. Rogers R AL-3 $71,550 $15,550
Mike Rogers R MI-8 $321,728 $24,625
Dana Rohrabacher R CA-46 $60,150 $22,100
Todd Rokita R IN-4 $204,593 $8,950
Tom Rooney R FL-16 $175,556 $10,300
Ileana Ros-Lehtinen R FL-18 $251,327 $13,850
Peter Roskam R IL-6 $339,120 $24,600
Dennis Ross R FL-12 $113,089 $5,750
Mike Ross D AR-4 $332,845 $30,450
Steve Rothman D NJ-9 $188,995 $7,150
Lucille Roybal-Allard D CA-34 $118,850 $3,250
Ed Royce R CA-40 $229,300 $15,200
Jon Runyan R NJ-3 $225,715 $13,200
C.A. “Dutch” Ruppersberger D MD-2 $157,810 $26,200
Bobby Rush D IL-1 $144,626 $1,250
Paul Ryan R WI-1 $385,875 $52,000
Tim Ryan D OH-17 $255,700 $3,650
Gregorio “Kilili” Sablan D MP $8,566 $0
Loretta Sanchez D CA-47 $369,006 $70,852
John Sarbanes D MD-3 $286,341 $31,550
Steve Scalise R LA-1 $202,807 $7,900
Jan Schakowsky D IL-9 $251,150 $58,150
Adam Schiff D CA-29 $382,500 $63,850
Robert Schilling R IL-17 $99,405 $12,050
Jeannette “Jean” Schmidt R OH-2 $137,637 $8,450
Aaron Schock R IL-18 $271,631 $19,600
Kurt Schrader D OR-5 $272,533 $67,600
Allyson Schwartz D PA-13 $596,405 $153,300
David Schweikert R AZ-5 $200,630 $30,700
Austin Scott R GA-8 $94,608 $200
David Scott D GA-13 $125,800 $28,750
Bobby Scott D VA-3 $92,100 $8,202
Tim Scott R SC-1 $276,610 $17,550
F. “Jim” Sensenbrenner R WI-5 $116,700 $4,700
José Serrano D NY-16 $43,950 $5,000
Pete Sessions R TX-32 $280,979 $27,900
Terri Sewell D AL-7 $335,345 $32,916
Brad Sherman D CA-27 $394,035 $23,590
John Shimkus R IL-19 $330,611 $3,221
Joseph Heath Shuler D NC-11 $211,712 $23,800
Bill Shuster R PA-9 $96,701 $250
Mike Simpson R ID-2 $86,600 $7,850
Albio Sires D NJ-13 $112,200 $1,300
Louise Slaughter D NY-28 $187,360 $9,450
David Adam Smith D WA-9 $173,043 $46,500
Adrian Smith R NE-3 $77,805 $9,800
Chris Smith R NJ-4 $100,200 $8,550
Lamar Smith R TX-21 $349,849 $21,350
Steve Southerland R FL-2 $90,355 $9,933
Karen “Jackie” Speier D CA-12 $187,057 $29,500
Fortney “Pete” Stark D CA-13 $25,000 $0
Cliff Stearns R FL-6 $175,300 $12,182
Steve Stivers R OH-15 $496,866 $54,780
Marlin Stutzman R IN-3 $100,559 $3,200
John Sullivan R OK-1 $159,246 $8,750
Betty Sutton D OH-13 $319,415 $46,613
Linda Sánchez D CA-39 $146,048 $4,419
Lee Terry R NE-2 $266,398 $22,050
Bennie Thompson D MS-2 $246,664 $38,550
C. Mike Thompson D CA-1 $422,116 $38,705
Glenn Thompson R PA-5 $115,952 $8,900
William “Mac” Thornberry R TX-13 $35,575 $15,300
Pat Tiberi R OH-12 $470,117 $47,550
John Tierney D MA-6 $176,659 $27,200
Scott Tipton R CO-3 $153,409 $21,250
Paul Tonko D NY-21 $213,343 $18,750
Ed Towns D NY-10 $308,334 $13,940
Niki Tsongas D MA-5 $288,850 $59,650
Mike Turner R OH-3 $115,275 $16,250
Robert Turner R NY-9 $0 $0
Fred Upton R MI-6 $550,920 $27,626
Chris Van Hollen D MD-8 $174,867 $21,950
Nydia Velázquez D NY-12 $129,325 $22,750
Pete Visclosky D IN-1 $144,402 $5,000
Tim Walberg R MI-7 $274,845 $16,833
Greg Walden R OR-2 $400,603 $32,550
Joe Walsh R IL-8 $166,884 $9,800
Tim Walz D MN-1 $299,510 $16,700
Debbie Wasserman Schultz D FL-20 $569,428 $32,350
Maxine Waters D CA-35 $37,500 $5,450
Mel Watt D NC-12 $156,100 $2,500
Henry Waxman D CA-30 $308,150 $4,500
Daniel Webster R FL-8 $215,719 $32,688
Peter Welch D VT $178,700 $15,355
Allen West R FL-22 $673,376 $77,000
Lynn Westmoreland R GA-3 $69,416 $3,500
Ed Whitfield R KY-1 $285,181 $9,500
Addison “Joe” Wilson R SC-2 $259,689 $27,850
Frederica Wilson D FL-17 $77,144 $700
Rob Wittman R VA-1 $72,900 $11,750
Frank Wolf R VA-10 $136,644 $53,000
Steve Womack R AR-3 $119,079 $4,450
Rob Woodall R GA-7 $43,350 $1,750
Lynn Woolsey D CA-6 $136,395 $7,675
John Yarmuth D KY-3 $177,776 $8,650
Kevin Yoder R KS-3 $296,176 $22,450
C. W. “Bill” Young R FL-10 $78,350 $6,850
Don Young R AK $103,112 $6,250
Todd Young R IN-9 $169,533 $14,150