“Scientists at a meeting of the International Lunar Exploration Working Group argue that it doesn’t matter if humans have ‘been there’ — there is plenty we still don’t know about our moon…” — Joe Pappalardo, Popular Mechanics science writer
The moon is the only celestial body in the known universe besides the sun with which the Earth is inextricably bound. In fact, it has been hypothesized that life as we know it could never have evolved at all in the absence of the moon.
It also just happens to be the single most anomalous “player” in the solar system — the “odd ball”, so to speak. The truth is that its features, its orbit, its geological make-up, its planetary movement — virtually everything about it, in fact — defy the norm, and conspire to render it unequivocally unique among all known heavenly bodies.
Despite its “backyard proximity” in celestial terms and centuries of close examination and analysis, the finest minds on the planet still can’t even agree on how it may have gotten there, as the best available evidence concerning its very existence just doesn’t seem to add up to any viable conclusions.
The fact is, we’re no closer today than we were the day Gallileo trained the first little primitive telescope at the lunar surface for an historically closer view, in offering a rational explanation for how the moon came to be where it is, doing what it does.
But a seemingly irrational explanation has evolved along the way; outlandish on its face, there’s really only one monumentally grievous problem with it:
It does, in fact, tend to rather tidily tie-up a host of anomalous loose-ends concerning the lunar mystery, offering up a plausible explanation (at least to the open-minded) for not only how the moon arrived in its current physics-and-logic-defying orbit around our plan-et, but something infinitely more exciting to contemplate: Why.
And the most beautiful thing about the theory, aside from its extreme romantic element, is that it is so thoroughly simple and straightforward, so completely uncomplicated, that even a caveman could grasp it. Simply put:
The moon is a spaceship.
What a wonderful suspenseful build-up and delivery that would have been if I hadn’t blown it in the title before you ever started in on the article!
According to the theory, at some unknown point in the dim past, some unknown extrater-restrial civilization either constructed “our” moon from scratch, or modified a conveniently available dead planet for use as a humongous spaceship — possibly big enough to carry the entire remnants of their dying or disaster-stricken population. Then, having outfitted the artificial satellite with an adequate propulsion system, and fuel and supplies enough for an extended journey, they boarded it and sailed it through the cosmos, until they encoun-tered a habitable planet and “parked” in close orbit around it. At that point, they may have ferried themselves to Earth in “space lifeboats”. We may in fact be the descendants of those space pioneers, or cosmic pilgrims…
Actually the original theory doesn’t quite include all that, I kind of added to it as I went along. The original hypothesis simply posits that it was done and nothing more: who had done it, when, and for what reason was inconveniently left out of the theorem. The scenario outlined above is only one distinct possiblity.
The Spaceship Moon Theory, also known as the Vasin-Shcherbakov Theory, is a pseudoscientific theory that claims the Earth’s moon may actually be an alien spacecraft. The theory was put forth by two members of the former Soviet Academy of Sciences, Michael Vasin and Alexander Shcherbakov, in a July 1970 article entitled “Is the Moon the Creation of Alien Intelligence?”.
Vasin and Shcherbakov’s thesis was that the Moon is a hollowed-out planetoid created by unknown beings with technology far superior to any on Earth. Huge machines would have been used to melt rock and form large cavities within the Moon, with the resulting molten lava spewing out onto the Moon’s surface. The Moon would therefore consist of a hull-like inner shell and an outer shell made from metallic rocky slag. For reasons unknown, the “Spaceship Moon” was then placed into orbit around the Earth. (From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.)
The Vasin-Shcherbakov Theory
Is The Moon The Creation Of Alien Intelligence?
Although people long ago began to wonder whether the “canals” on Mars were the crea-tion of cosmic engineers, for some odd reason it has not occurred to them to look with the same eyes upon the peculiarities of the lunar landscape much closer at hand. And all the arguments about the possibilities of intelligent life existing on other celestial bodies have been confined to the idea that other civilisations must necessarily live on the surface of a planet, and that the interior as a habitat is out of the question.
Abandoning the traditional paths of “common sense”, we have plunged into what may at first sight seem to be unbridled and irresponsible fantasy. But the more minutely we go into all the information gathered by man about the Moon, the more we are convinced that there is not a single fact to rule out our supposition. Not only that, but many things so far considered to be lunar enigmas are explainable in the light of this new hypothesis.
AN ARTIFICIAL SPUTNIK OF THE EARTH?
The origin of the Moon is one of the most complicated problems of cosmogony. So far there have been basically three hypotheses under discussion.
HYPOTHESIS I: The Moon was once a part of the Earth and broke away from it.
This has now been refuted by the evidence.
HYPOTHESIS II: The Moon was formed independently from the same cloud of dust and gas as the Earth, and immediately became the Earth’s natural satellite.
But then why is there such a big difference between the specific gravity of the Moon (3.33 grams per cubic centimeter) and that of the Earth (5.5 grams)? Furthermore, according to the latest information (analysis of samples brought back by the U.S. Apollo astronauts) lunar rock is not of the same composition as the Earth’s.
HYPOTHESIS III: The Moon came into being separately, and, moreover, far from the Earth (perhaps even outside the Solar system). This would mean that the moon would not have to be fashioned from the same “clay” as our own planet. Sailing through the Universe, the Moon came into Earth’s proximity, and by a complex interplay of forces of gravity was brought within a geocentric orbit, very close to circular. But a catch of this kind is virtually impossible.
In fact, scientists studying the origin of the Universe today have no acceptable theory to explain how the Earth-Moon system came into being.
OUR HYPOTHESIS: The Moon is an artificial Earth satellite put into orbit around the Earth by some intelligent beings unknown to ourselves.
We refuse to engage in speculation about who exactly staged this unique experiment, which only a highly developed civilisation was capable of.
A NOAH’S ARK?
If you are going to launch an artificial sputnik, then it is advisable to make it hollow. At the same time it would be naive to imagine that anyone capable of such a tremendous space project would be satisfied simply with some kind of giant empty trunk hurled into a near-Earth trajectory.
It is more likely that what we have here is a very ancient spaceship, the interior of which was filled with fuel for the engines, materials and appliances for repair work, navigation, instruments, observation equipment and all manner of machinery… in other words, every-thing necessary to enable this “caravelle of the Universe” to serve as a kind of Noah’s Ark
of intelligence, perhaps even as the home of a whole civilisation envisaging a prolonged (billions of years) existence and long wanderings through space (billions of miles).
Naturally, the hull of such a spaceship must be super-tough in order to stand up to the blows of meteorites and sharp fluctuations between extreme heat and extreme cold. Probably the shell is a double-layered affair — the basis a dense armouring of about 20 miles in thickness, and outside it some kind of more loosely-packed covering (a thinner layer, averaging about three miles). In certain areas — where the lunar “seas” and “craters” are, the upper layer is quite thin, in some cases, non-existent.
Since the Moon’s diameter is 2,162 miles, then looked at from our point of view it is a thin-walled sphere. And, understandably, not an empty one. There could be all kinds of mater-ials and equipment on its inner surface.
But the greatest proportion of the lunar mass is concentrated in the central part of the sphere, in its core, which has a diameter of 2,062 miles.
Thus the distance between the kernel and the shell of this nut is in the region of 30 miles. This space was doubtless filled with gases required for breathing, and for technological and other purposes.
With such an internal structure the Moon could have an average specific gravity of 3.3 grams per cubic centimeter, which differs considerably from that of Earth (5.5 grams per cubic centimeter).
A BATTLESHIP THEY COULDN’T TORPEDO?
The most numerous and interesting of the formations on the lunar surface are the craters. In diameter they vary considerably. Some are less that a yard across, while others are more than 120 miles (the biggest has a diameter of 148 miles). How does the Moon come to be so pockmarked?
There are two hypothesis–volcanic and meteoric. Most scientists vote for the latter.
Kirill Stanyukovich, a Soviet physicist, has written a whole series of works since 1937 in which he expounds the idea that the craters are the result of bombardment of the Moon for millions of years. And he really means bombardment, for even the smallest celestial body, when it is involved in one of those fastest head-on collisions so common in the cosmos behaves itself like a warhead charged with dynamite, or even an atomic warhead at times. Instant combustion takes place on impact, turning it into a dense cloud of incandescent gas, into plasma, and there is a very definite explosion.
According to Professor Stanykovich, a “missile” of a sizable character (say 6 miles in diameter) must, on collision with the Moon, penetrate to a depth equal to 4 or 5 times its own diameter (24-30 miles).
The surprising thing is that however big the meteorites may have been which have fallen on the Moon (some have been more than 60 miles in diameter), and however fast they must have been travelling (in some cases the combined speed was as much as 38 miles per second), the craters they have left behind are for some odd reason all about the same depth, 1.2-2 miles, although they vary tremendously in diameter.
Take that 148-mile diameter crater. In area it outdoes Hiroshima hundreds of times over. What a powerful explosion it must have been to send millions of tons of lunar rock fountaining over tens of miles! On the face of it, one would expect to find a very deep crater here, but nothing of the sort: there is three miles at the most between top and bottom levels, and one third of that is accounted for by the wall of rock thrown up around the crater like a toothed crown.
For such a big hole, it is too shallow. Furthermore, the bottom of the crater is convex, following the curve of the lunar surface. If you were to stand in the middle of the crater you would not even be able to see the soaring edge– it would be beyond the horizon. A hollow that is more like a hill is a rather strange affair, perhaps.
Not really, if one assumes that when the meteorite strikes the outer covering of the moon, this plays the role of a buffer and the foreign body finds itself up against an impenetrable spherical barrier. Only slightly denting the 20-mile layer of armour plating, the explosion flings bits of its “coating” far and wide.
Bearing in mind that the Moon’s defence coating is, according to our calculations, 2.5 miles thick, one sees that this is approximately the maximum depth of the craters.
A SPACESHIP COME TO GRIEF?
Now let us consider the chemical peculiarities of the lunar rock. Upon analysis, American scientists have found chromium, titanium and zirconium in it. These are all metals with refractory, mechanically strong and anti-corrosive properties. A combination of them all would have envitable resistance to heat and the ability to stand up to means of aggression, and could be used on Earth for linings for electrical furnaces.
If a material had to be devised to protect a giant artificial satellite from the unfavorable effects of temperature, from cosmic radiation and meteorite bombardment, the experts would probably have hit on precisely these metals. In that case it is not clear why lunar rock is such an extraordinarily poor heat conductor–a factor which so amazed the astronauts? Wasn’t that what the designers of the Super-Sputnik of the Earth were after?
From the engineers point of view, this spaceship of ages long past which we call the Moon is superbly constructed. There may be a good reason for its extreme longevity. It is even possible that it predates our own planet. At any rate, some pieces of lunar rock have proved older than the oldest on Earth, although it is true, this applies to the age of the materials and not of the structure for which they were used. And from the number of craters on its surface, the Moon itself is no chicken.
It is, of course, difficult to say when it began to shine in the sky above the Earth, but on the basis of some preliminary estimates one might hazard a guess that it was around two thousand million years ago.
We do not, of course, imagine that the moon is still inhabited, and probably many of its automatic devices have stopped working, too. The stabilizers have ceased functioning and the poles have shifted. Even though the moon keeps that same side turned towards us, for some time it has been unsteady on its own axis, on occasion showing us part of its reverse side which were once invisible to observers on the Earth–for example, the Selenites themselves if they made expeditions here.
Time has taken its toll. Both body and rigging have disintegrated to some extent; some seams on the inner shell evidently diverged. We assume that the long (up to 940 miles) chains of small craters formerly ascribed to volcanic activity were brought about by eruptions of gas through cracks appearing in the armour plating as a result of accidents.
No doubt one of the most splendid features of the lunarscape–a straight “wall” nearly 500 yards high and over 60 miles long–formed as a result of one of the armour plates bending under the impact of celestial torpedoes and raising one of its straight, even edges.
The Moon’s population presumably took the necessary steps to remedy the effects of meteorite bombardment, for example, patching up rents in the outer shield covering the inner shell. For such purposes a substance from the lunar core was probably used, a kind a cement being made from it. After processing this would be piped to the surface sites where it was required.
Not long ago astronomers discovered variations in the gravitational fields near the large “seas”. We believe the reason to be this: the Moon’s dry seas are in fact areas from which the protective coating was torn from the armour cladding. To make good the damage to these vast tracts, the installation producing the repair substance would have had to be brought immediately beneath the site so that it could flood the area with “cement”. The resulting flat stretches are what look like seas to the terrestrial observer.
The stocks of materials and machinery for doing this are no doubt still where they were, and are sufficiently massive to give rise to these gravitational anomalies.
What is the Moon today? Is it a colossal necropolis, a “city of the dead,” where some form of life became extinct? Is it a kind cosmic Flying Dutchman?
A craft abandoned by its crew and controlled automatically? We do not know and we shall not try to guess.
WAITING FOR THE EVIDENCE
We have put forward in this article only a few of the reasons–unfortunately the evidence is so far only circumstantial–for our hypothesis, which at first glance may appear to be crazy.
A similar “crazy” idea was put forward in 1959 by Professor Iosif Shklovsky, an eminent scientist, in relation to the “moons” circling around Mars. After carefully weighing up the evidence he concludes that they are both hollow and therefore artificial satellites.
We feel that the questions we have raised in connection with our Moon provide sufficient food for serious thought on the matter; the result may be the illumination of our many lunar riddles.
Now, of course, we have to wait for direct evidence to support our idea. Or refute it.
Probably there will not be long to wait.
You know, if you strive to remain open-minded while you closely analyze the lunar photos provided here I think you’ll have to admit the features just look “weird” — as in unnatural, atypical, anomalous, take your pick. The general terrain just looks too smooth and level, even at the bottoms of the larger craters, which incidently don’t look like any craters I’ve ever seen, possessing breadth but no real depth. Even the hills and mountains look as if they just “landed” there, possibly as ejecta from the meteor strikes.
NASA says the mares are the product of volcanic action, but if that’s true, then where are the volcanos? They’re not hard to spot on Earth, and we’ve even found some on Mars. But where are the volcanos that are supposed to be responsible for all that lava flow on the moon hiding? Shouldn’t they be at roughly the center of each mare, or at least somewhere nearby? But the truth is they are conspicuously inconspicuous, and what we have instead by all accounts including NASA’s, are mascons — roughly circular sub-surface areas of such extreme density that they create localized gravitational anomalies — located at or near the center of each and every mare.
No one knows what these mascons are or what relationship they have to the lava flow. In fact, they remain a total enigma. If the “spaceship moon” theory really shines anywhere it may be here, as it offers up what may well be the most plausible, if not the only plausible explanation: that they are the remnants of the monolithic sub-surface industrial complexes logically requisite for producing and pumping such an enormous volume of molten rock artificially.
We certainly owe Vasin and Schcerbakov for their Erich von Danikenesque exploration of this theory, but since the initial publishing of their report much further work has been done, evidence compiled, and documentation accumulated on this subject; in fact, entire volumes have been written in support of their claims. Later we shall examine the current state of this research, but before we do, let’s hear what NASA feels we should know about our moon…
1. Moon’s Age: The moon is far older than previously expected. Maybe even older than the Earth or the Sun. The oldest age for the Earth is estimated to be 4.6 billion years old; moon rocks were dated at 5.3 billion years old, and the dust upon which they were resting was at least another billion years older.
2. Rock’s Origin: The chemical composition of the dust upon which the rocks sat differed remarkably from the rocks themselves, contrary to accepted theories that the dust resulted from weathering and breakup of the rocks themselves. The rocks had to have come from somewhere else.
3. Heavier Elements on Surface: Normal planetary composition results in heavier elements in the core and lighter materials at the surface; not so with the moon. According to Wilson, “The abundance of refractory elements like titanium in the surface areas is so pronounced that several geologists proposed the refractory compounds were brought to the moon’s surface in great quantity in some unknown way. They don’t know how, but that it was done cannot be questioned.”
4. Water Vapor: On March 7, 1971, lunar instruments placed by the astronauts recorded a vapor cloud of water passing across the surface of the moon. The cloud lasted 14 hours and covered an area of about 100 square miles.
5. Magnetic Rocks: Moon rocks were magnetized. This is odd because there is no magnetic field on the moon itself. This could not have originated from a “close call” with Earth—such an encounter would have ripped the moon apart.
6. No Volcanoes: Some of the moon’s craters originated internally, yet there is no indication that the moon was ever hot enough to produce volcanic eruptions.
7. Moon Mascons: Mascons, which are large, dense, circular masses lying twenty to forty miles beneath the centers of the moon’s maria, “are broad, disk-shaped objects that could be possibly some kind of artificial construction. For huge circular disks are not likely to be beneath each huge maria, centered like bull’s-eyes in the middle of each, by coincidence or accident.”
8. Seismic Activity: Hundreds of “moonquakes” are recorded each year that cannot be attributed to meteor strikes. In November, 1958, Soviet astronomer Nikolay A. Kozyrev of the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory photographed a gaseous eruption of the moon near the crater Alphonsus. He also detected a reddish glow that lasted for about an hour. In 1963, astronomers at the Lowell Observatory also saw reddish glows on the crests of ridges in the Aristarchus region. These observations have proved to be precisely identical and periodical, repeating themselves as the moon moves closer to the Earth. These are probably not natural phenomena.
9. Hollow Moon: The moon’s mean density is 3.34 gm/cm3 (3.34 times an equal volume of water) whereas the Earth’s is 5.5. What does this mean? In 1962, NASA scientist Dr. Gordon MacDonald stated, “If the astronomical data are reduced, it is found that the data require that the interior of the moon is more like a hollow than a homogeneous sphere.” Nobel chemist Dr. Harold Urey suggested the moon’s reduced density is because of large areas inside the moon where is “simply a cavity.” MIT’s Dr. Sean C. Solomon wrote, “the Lunar Orbiter experiments vastly improved our knowledge of the moon’s gravitational field . . . indicating the frightening possibility that the moon might be hollow.” In Carl Sagan’s treatise, Intelligent Life in the Universe, the famous astronomer stated, “A natural satellite cannot be a hollow object.”
10. Moon Echoes: On November 20, 1969, the Apollo 12 crew jettisoned the lunar module ascent stage causing it to crash onto the moon. The LM’s impact (about 40 miles from the Apollo 12 landing site) created an artificial moonquake with startling characteristics—the moon reverberated like a bell for more than an hour. This phenomenon was repeated with Apollo 13 (intentionally commanding the third stage to impact the moon), with even more startling results. Seismic instruments recorded that the reverberations lasted for three hours and twenty minutes and traveled to a depth of twenty-five miles, leading to the conclusion that the moon has an unusually light—or even no—core.
11. Unusual Metals: The moon’s crust is much harder than presumed. Remember the extreme difficulty the astronauts encountered when they tried to drill into the maria? Surprise! The maria is composed primarily illeminite, a mineral containing large amounts of titanium, the same metal used to fabricate the hulls of deep-diving submarines and the skin of the SR-71 “Blackbird”. Uranium 236 and neptunium 237 (elements not found in nature on Earth) were discovered in lunar rocks, as were rustproof iron particles.
12. Moon’s Origin: Before the astronauts’ moon rocks conclusively disproved the theory, the moon was believed to have originated when a chunk of Earth broke off eons ago (who knows from where?). Another theory was that the moon was created from leftover “space dust” remaining after the Earth was created. Analysis of the composition of moon rocks disproved this theory also. Another popular theory is that the moon was somehow “captured” by the Earth’s gravitational attraction. But no evidence exists to support this theory. Isaac Asimov, stated, “It’s too big to have been captured by the Earth. The chances of such a capture having been effected and the moon then having taken up nearly circular orbit around our Earth are too small to make such an eventuality credible.”
13. Weird Orbit: Our moon is the only moon in the solar system that has a stationary, near-perfect circular orbit. Stranger still, the moon’s center of mass is about 6000 feet closer to the Earth than its geometric center (which should cause wobbling), but the moon’s bulge is on the far side of the moon, away from the Earth. “Something” had to put the moon in orbit with its precise altitude, course, and speed.
14. Moon Diameter: How does one explain the “coincidence” that the moon is just the right distance, coupled with just the right diameter, to completely cover the sun during an eclipse? Again, Isaac Asimov responds, “There is no astronomical reason why the moon and the sun should fit so well. It is the sheerest of coincidences, and only the Earth among all the planets is blessed in this fashion.”
15. Spaceship Moon: As outrageous as the Moon-Is-a-Spaceship Theory is, all of the above items are resolved if one assumes that the moon is a gigantic extraterrestrial craft, brought here eons ago by intelligent beings. This is the only theory that is supported by all of the data, and there are no data that contradict this theory.
Greek authors Aristotle and Plutarch, and Roman authors Apolllonius Rhodius and Ovid all wrote of a group of people called the Proselenes who lived in the central mountainous area of Greece called Arcadia The Proselenes claimed title to this area because their forebears were there “before there was a moon in the heavens.” This claim is substantiated by symbols on the wall of the Courtyard of Kalasasaya, near the city of Tiahuanaco, Bolivia, which record that the moon came into orbit around the Earth between 11,500 and 13, 000 years ago, long before recorded history.
1. Ages of Flashes: Aristarchus, Plato, Eratosthenes, Biela, Rabbi Levi, and Posidonius all reported anomalous lights on the moon. NASA, one year before the first lunar landing, reported 570+ lights and flashes were observed on the moon from 1540 to 1967.
2. Operation Moon Blink: NASA’s Operation Moon Blink detected 28 lunar events in a relatively short period of time.
3. Lunar Bridge: On July 29, 1953, John J. O’Neill observed a 12-mile-long bridge straddling the crater Mare Crisium. In August, British astronomer Dr. H.P. Wilkens verified its presence, “It looks artificial. It’s almost incredible that such a thing could have been formed in the first instance, or if it was formed, could have lasted during the ages in which the moon has been in existence.
4. The Shard: The Shard, an obelisk-shaped object that towers 1½ miles from the Ukert area of the moon’s surface, was discovered by Orbiter 3 in 1968. Dr. Bruce Cornet, who studied the amazing photographs, stated, “No known natural process can explain such a structure.”
5. The Tower: One of the most curious features ever photographed on the Lunar surface (Lunar Orbiter photograph III-84M) is an amazing spire that rises more than 5 miles from the Sinus Medii region of the lunar surface.
6. The Obelisks: Lunar Orbiter II took several photographs in November 1966 that showed several obelisks, one of which was more than 150 feet tall. “. . . the spires were arranged in precisely the same was as the apices of the three great pyramids.”
Don Ecker, Mike Singh, NASA/JPL, The Forbidden Knowledge, Wikipedia, JAXA/NHK, and Ronald Regehr.